Cinema Space & Hagerstand’s Restrictions

Image result for cinema

With the rise of streaming services such as Netflix and the abundance of those online, film rental companies such as Blockbuster have certainly been busted. Netflix has the ability to target both legacy and niche markets that appeal to a larger audience, create convenience and to not be bound by physical space. By the end of 2015, 2,728,000 Australians 14+ (13.9%) had Netflix, with over a million homes subscribed”. This emphasises the company’s drastic effect on nation’s population and ultimately the cinema space that is being shadowed, within its first year of existence

The cinema industry can be recognized to be declining in terms of attendance with the average rate in 2014 totaling to 68%, stating the frequency at 6.8 times within the year (Screen Australia, 2016).

Image result for netflix

So what would you rather?

Consume movies and content from the comfort of your own home on your smart device or immerse yourself within the cinema setting while experiencing a film?

Coined by Torsten Hagerstand, 3 human restraints exist in regards to time & space geography. These elements can be responsible to a failed or successful experience concerning the overall logistics of a journey. Furthermore, this can alter and impact one’s actions, considerations and rejections, which can be applied to the cinema practice.

  • Capability Constraints: Refers to the limits on human movement due to physical or biological factors, access to mobility tools and the availability of temporal and financial resources for conducting activities and making trips
  • Coupling Constraints: Refers to the need to be in one particular place for a given length of time, often in interaction with people.
  • Authority Constraints: refers to areas (or “domains”) that is controlled by certain people or institutions that set limits on its access to a particular individual or group

(Hagerstrand 1970, Schonfelder and Azhausen 2010, p.38).

Due to the nature and characteristics of services such as Netflix, they do not house these forms restrictions like cinemas do and are affected by. This can be a determining factor as to why there are increases and decreases within the industry today. This week I was encouraged and determined to attend a film within the cinema space, whereby I would be aware of Hagerstand’s restrictions and challenges. Throughout my experience I would explore the media space and address these limitations (can I get there?/can I get there on time?/am I allowed to be there?).

In order to attend the film I was to make sure that I was capable in doing so. I had to make sure that the mode of transport was dealt with, as a driver factors such as fuel and conditions of the car were integral. This meant I could plan the experience knowing I have sufficient funds and mobility to a location that was 15 minute away.

The challenge of coupling was apparent. The film commenced at 9.20pm, so we had to leave accordingly. As I decided to drive I had to pick up my passenger who lives 5 minutes in the opposite direction. Another test within this constraint was that the supermarket next door to the cinema (which we would purchase our cinema snacks) was scheduled to close at 9pm, which meant that we had to leave correspondingly to that time. This resulted in an early arrival of 25 minutes.

The authority constraint was not an issue with our experience; we were of age for the film, fit the demographic and purchased our tickets appropriately. The logistical journey was a success, whereby through thought-out steps we were able to overcome the limitations.

The film was ‘War Dogs’ and I thoroughly enjoyed it, I’m a sucker for ‘based on a true story’ films and seem to always research the actual events and people after watching it. I have always abided to the same customs when engaging with a film on the big screen. Location within the complex is key in regards to seating; I have always situated myself in the centre back of the theatre giving myself a full symmetrical vision of the screen to please my OCD and to have a good vision, both direct and peripheral.

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As I grew up these routines changed, from watching films with my family, friends and occasionally on my lonesome. I depended on hitching rides to the theatre before having my license, scraping all loose change I could find in the house for a ticket and questioning whether I could get into an MA rated movie without adult supervision. Unaware of Hagerstand’s 3 constraints at the time, I have realized how heavily they have influenced my choices and travels in the past involving my experiences with the cinemas.


Roy Morgan, 2015, ‘ Netflix finishes 2015 reaching 2,728,000 Australians’, Roy Morgan Research, viewed: 27 August 2016, < >

Schonfelder, S & Axhausen KW 2010, ‘Time, Space and Travel Analysis: An Overview’, in S Schonfelder & KW Axhausen (eds), Urban Rhythms and Travel Behaviour: Spatial and Temporal Phenomena of Daily Travel, Ashgate Publishing Company, Surrey, p.29-48.

Screen Australia, 2016, ‘Cinema Audience Attendance Patterns’, Screen Australia, viewed: 27 August 2016, < >



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